Oppression & Liberation Trees

These are powerful excerpts from our Honouring Indigenous Women: Hearts of Nations (Vol. 1) booklet.

The Tree of Colonial Oppression

Tree of Oppression illustrationDownload or view a PDF of the Oppression Tree, with definitions of terms used in the illustrations, and a list of statistics called “Snapshots of Colonial Violence.” (You may need to right-click or option-click on the link to download, depending on your computer and browser.)

The Tree of Liberation


Download or view a PDF of the Liberation Tree.

Sources for the facts listed in “Snapshots of Colonial Violence” on the back of the Oppression Tree

Prison:

  • Brennan, Shannon. 2011. “Violent victimization of Aboriginal women in the Canadian provinces, 2009”. In Juristat. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.
  • Canadian Association of Elizabeth Fry Societies. 2011. Aboriginal Women Factsheet. Ottawa: Canadian Association of Elizabeth Fry Societies. Available at elizabethfry.ca/wwdcms/uploads/Aboriginal%20Women.pdf
  • Canadian Association of Elizabeth Fry Societies. Date unknown. Aboriginal Women. Ottawa: Canadian Association of Elizabeth Fry Societies. Available at http://www.elizabethfry.ca/eweek06/pdf/aborig.pdf
  • Finn, Ann et al. 1996. “Female Inmates, Aboriginal Inmates, and Inmates Serving Life Sentences: A One Day Snapshot”. In Juristat, Vol. 19 No.5. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.
  • Jacobs, Beverley. 2004. Stolen Sisters: Discrimination and Violence Against Indigenous Women in Canada.  Ottawa: Amnesty International. Available at http://www.amnesty.ca/campaigns/sisters_overview.php
  • Native Women’s Association of Canada. 2006. Native Women’s Association of Canada’s Report in Response to Canada’s Fourth and Fifth Reports on the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights covering the period of September 1999 – December 2004. Ottawa: Native Women’s Association of Canada. Available at http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cescr/docs/info-ngos/NWAC.pdf
  • Perreault, Samuel. 2009. “The incarceration of Aboriginal people in adult correctional services”. In Juristat, Vol. 29 No. 3. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.
  • Prison Justice. 2008. Facts and Statistics. Vancouver: PrisonJustice.ca. Available at http://www.vcn.bc.ca/august10/politics/facts_stats.html
  • The Correctional Investigator Canada. 2006. Report Finds Evidence of Systemic Discrimination Against Aboriginal Inmates in Canada’s Prisons. Ottawa: the Correctional Investigator Canada. Available at: http://www.oci-bec.gc.ca/comm/press/press20061016-eng.aspx

Water:

Life expectancy and Health:

Physical and sexual abuse:

  • Bopp, Michael et al. 2003. “Aboriginal Domestic Violence in Canada”. In The Aboriginal Healing Foundation Research Series. Ottawa: Aboriginal Healing Foundation.
  • Mann, Michelle. 2005. Aboriginal Women: An Issues Backgrounder. Prepared for Status of Women Canada. Available at http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection/SW21-146-2005E.pdf
  • McCaslin, Wanda D. and Yvonne Boyer. 2009. “First Nations Communities at Risk and in Crisis: Justice and Security”. Journal of Aboriginal Health, November. Available at http://www.naho.ca/jah/english/jah05_02/V5_I2_Communities_03.pdf
  • McIvor, Sharon D. & Teressa A. Nahanee.1998. “Aboriginal Women: Invisible Victims of Violence.” In Unsettling Truths: Battered Women, Policy, Politics, and Contemporary Research in Canada, ed. Kevin Bonnycastle & George S. Rigakos, 63-69. Vancouver: Collective Press.
  • The Metropolitan Toronto Action Committee on Violence Against Women. 2001. Statistics Sheet: Sexual Assault. Toronto: Metrac.
  • Stout, Madeleine Dion and Gregory D. Kipling. 1998. Aboriginal Women in Canada: Strategic Research Directions.Research funded by Ottawa: Status of Women Canada.

Over-representation in the sex trade:

Suicide rate:

  • Allard, Yvon E. et al. 2004. “Premature mortality in health regions with high Aboriginal populations”. In Health Reports, Vol. 15 No.1. Ottawa: Statistics Canada
  • Canadian Mental Health Association. Date unknown. Aboriginal People/First Nations. Toronto: Canadian Mental Health Association. Available at http://www.ontario.cmha.ca/about_mental_health.asp?cID=23053
  • Kirmayer, Laurence J. et al. 2007. “Suicide Among Aboriginal People in Canada”. In The Aboriginal Healing Foundation Research Series. Ottawa: Aboriginal Healing Foundation.
  • McCaslin, Wanda D. and Yvonne Boyer. 2009. “First Nations Communities at Risk and in Crisis: Justice and Security”. Journal of Aboriginal Health, November. Available at http://www.naho.ca/jah/english/jah05_02/V5_I2_Communities_03.pdf

Underfunded Education:

  • Amnesty International. 2004. Stolen Sisters: A Human Rights Response to Discrimination and Violence Against Indigenous Women in Canada. Ottawa: Amnesty International. Available at http://www.amnesty.ca/stolensisters/amr2000304.pdf
  • Shannen’s Dream. Date unknown. First Nations Education – Why do First Nations children on reserve get inequitable education and many get poor quality schools? Ottawa: First Nations Child and Family Caring Society of Canada
  • Shannen’s Dream. 2011. Shannen’s Dream.  Ottawa: First Nations Child and Family Caring Society of Canada. Available at http://www.fncfcs.com/shannensdream/

Child Welfare:

  • Bennett, M. Date unknown. First Nations Fact Sheet: A General Profile on First Nations Child Welfare in Canada. Ottawa: First Nations Child and Family Caring Society of Canada. Available at: http://www.fncfcs.com/sites/default/files/docs/FirstNationsFS1.pdf.
  • Blackstock, C. 2007. “Residential Schools: Did They Really Close or just Morph into Child Welfare?”. In Indigenous Law Journal, 6(1), 71-78.
  • Blackstock, C. 2008. “Reconciliation Means Not Saying Sorry Twice: Lessons From Child Welfare in Canada”. In From Truth to Reconciliation: Transforming the Legacy of Residential Schools. Ottawa: Aboriginal Healing Foundation. pp 164-178.
  • Blackstock, C. 2010. Is this Our Canada? Ottawa: Indigenous Peoples Solidarity Movement Ottawa. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1CZ71KcWxN8.
  • I am a Witness Campaign. Ottawa: First Nations Child and Families Caring Society of Canada. Available at http://www.fncaringsociety.com/fnwitness/importance
  • Office of the Auditor General of Canada. 2008. “Chapter 4 First Nations Child and Family Services Program – Indian and Northern Affairs Canada”. In Report of the Auditor General of Canada to the House of Commons. Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada

 

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